case studies

California Measurements instruments have been used for diverse applications in laboratories and at unique onsite locations all over the world. Our samplers are portable and rugged with an excellent track record of reliability for use in the field. Learn more about specific case studies and how results were achieved.

Inhalation Toxicology Research

For the inhalation toxicology researcher, our PC-2 low-flow 10-stage Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) cascade impactor provides the capability to get true mass-based concentration and size distribution data rapidly and automatically.

Our PC-2 10-stage 0.24 lpm flow QCM real-time cascade impactor is the instrument of choice for measuring aerosols during inhalation toxicology research. It is especially suitable for monitoring the concentration and size distribution of aerosols inhaled by laboratory animals. Its low flow rate of 0.24 lpm makes it especially optimum for sampling aerosols from small-volume breathing zone chambers. With this instrument, the aerosol mass concentration and size distribution of samples, especially in the smaller size ranges of less than 1 micron sent out by aerosol generators, can be accurately and rapidly determined. The real-time data reporting capability of this cascade impactor eliminates the delay in getting data when a conventional cascade impactor is used.

This instrument utilizes well-established inertial impaction principles to size segregate particles, and its ten-stage cascade impactor provides the broad size range coverage. Its unique feature of using “live” oscillating quartz crystal impaction plates in each impactor stage gives it real-time data reporting capability. The combined use of these two technologies has had a long proven operating reliability track record over almost 30 years. It is portable enough to be easily transported to the field and be moved around to different locations in a factory to make measurements. Its data output is a hard-copy printout showing mass concentration in each size range and a histogram of size distribution. Each printout is provided within a minute after a sample run.

In addition to this automatic data capability, it also retains particle samples in size-segregated groups on its crystal substrates that can be brought back to the laboratory for analysis. This allows the inhalation toxicology scientist to gain more insight on the morphology, chemical and physical make-up of the particles inhaled by the lab animal.

Over the years, many of our instruments have been used for testing aerosols in test chambers at various pharmaceutical companies and inhalation toxicology test laboratories. It has even been used at nuclear power plants to assess the potential of inhalation of radioactive particles by workers.

This instrument is supplied complete with pump and all necessary accessories for turnkey operation.